Saturday, July 17, 2010

how to remove old design fromsilk screen

how to remove old design fromsilk screen ?



Clean all the ink off the silk screen. Use a pressure washer if you have one.


Mix a solution of equal parts household bleach and water.


Pour the bleach solution onto the surface of the silk screen.


Scrub lightly with a nail brush or soft-bristled scrub brush and let sit for five minutes.


Scrub the entire surface on both sides.


Rinse with water.


Repeat until all the emulsion is removed.


Hold the screen up to a window or bright light and tip to view it at different angles.


Scrub until it's clean no matter at which angle you view it.


Allow to air dry fully before storing.

Tips & Warnings

  • Use the pressure washer (in a pinch, a garden hose) to wash the screen out. If you don't have any kind of a pressure device, washing will take longer and you'll scrub more.
  • You can buy commercial products for this purpose, such as CPS Screen Wash, but bleach works fine and is less expensive.
  • Make sure to get the emulsion off the taped edges of the screen as well as off the middle.
  • Wear gloves and goggles: photo emulsion is toxic and bleach is caustic.

How to Expose Photo Emulsion for Silk Screen Printing

How to Expose Photo Emulsion for Silk Screen Printing



Place the silkscreen frame - coated with emulsion that's dried - in the contact exposure unit. The well of the screen should have the foam inserted into it and be locked down in position, flat face up.


Place the artwork to be exposed (the transparency) on the emulsion surface "wrong reading" (i.e. backwards) in the center of the screen.


Place the plate glass over the art, sandwiching the art between the glass and the silkscreen mesh. Make sure there is contact over the entire surface of the art. (The emulsion is slow, so you can do this quickly under normal light.)


Use a dolly, a little red wagon, or two people to take the entire unit out into direct sunlight, being careful not to disturb the glass or move the art around in any way.


Let the contact unit sit in the direct sun for at least 20 minutes. (See exposure times below.)

Wheel the contact unit into a shady area (or indoors if there is an area set up for washing inside) after exposure.


Disassemble the unit, removing the art and glass from harm's way.

Place the screen in an upright position, braced in such a way so as not to move when sprayed with water.


Use a garden hose or power washer to spray the entire surface of the screen with water. At first, do this with low pressure from a distance. Within 2 minutes the screen will start to open up and the positive areas will start washing away.


Move closer if necessary, increasing the pressure of the hose and focusing it on any areas that do not seem to be washing away.

Continue until all the positive, unexposed places in the screen are washed clear.

Tips & Warnings
  • xposure times will vary depending on the time of year, haze, cloud cover and time of day. On a clear day at noon in the summer, 20 minutes is enough time to harden the exposed emulsion. On a clear day at noon in winter, 40 minutes will be the likely exposure time. Under hazy, cloudy conditions or with exposure during the late afternoon, it might take up to 2 hours, so plan accordingly.
  • he emulsion should change color from a light pink or light blue-green to a dark blue-green when fully exposed. A photo-flood, sunlamp bulb, or even flourescent light can be used, but you will have to test exposure times specific to the particular light source you use. Always keep the distance from the bulb to the screen constant when testing.
  • The exposure process works like this: The emulsion responds to the UV rays of the sun. The light hardens the unprotected (the clear, or negative) areas of the screen's coated surface, preventing ink from being pushed through. Protected (positive) areas of the screen do not receive the UV rays and, therefore, remain soluble in water.
  • Make sure weather conditions are conducive to the amount of exposure time you have.
  • Clean the glass before using.
  • The contact unit with the screen and plate glass is heavy, so don't lift it by yourself.
  • Be careful not to use too much water pressure when developing the screen. Initially, the entire surface is somewhat delicate and could be penetrated by the water under high pressure.
  • If the emulsion surface begins to run in a smeary mass down the surface of the screen, you used too much photo emulsion in the coating process. Wash out completely and let dry before coating again.

How to burn an image into a silk- screen

Most people want to know how to burn the image into the screen. It is probably the most difficult part of silk-screening but it is very simple to do. This tutorial is a simple outline of how to get your artwork from you transparency to the screen.

Step 1:

First, you need to prepare the screen. The screen needs to be degreased so the emulsion will form a better bond with the screen. This can be done by spraying degreaser onto the screen and wiping it off.
Step 2:

The emulsion will now be applied to the screen. In a low-light room, pour the emulsion into the screen coater. Apply the emulsion to both sides of the screen. It is important that you do not apply the emulsion too thick. It is also important that a uniform coat is applied to the screen.
Let the emulsion dry for about an hour (or longer) in a dimly lit room. A fan should be placed about five feet away from the screen to assist in the drying process.
Step 3:

Prepare the artwork. A tutorial on how to prepare the artwork can be found by clicking here.
Step 4:

Place the artwork on the screen.
A piece of glass should be placed on the artwork. This will act as a vacuum so your artwork will not move while it's being burnt into the screen.
Step 5:

An exposure light is in included with Package #1, #2, and #3. Place the exposure light about one foot above the screen. Please take a look at the diagram below to see how everything is situated.
A black felt or cloth is placed beneath the screen to absorb light so that no light is reflected back up to the screen.

Step 6:

Burning times will vary, but ten minutes is a safe time. It is better to over-burn than under-burn the screen and emulsion.
After your screen is burnt. Take a spray bottle and mist the screen with water. Take your screen outside or to a sink or tub and rinse out your screen. If you are having trouble getting the emulsion out, you may have to increase the water pressure of your hose or sink.
You should be left with your image burnt into your screen. Once this step is complete, you are well on your way to printing t-shirts.

How to Make a Easy Silk Screen Stencil Tee Shirt

How to Make a Easy Silk Screen Stencil Tee Shirt

learn it

Simple idea about printing silk screen

Simple idea about printing

how it print and by simple idea

How to clean the screen after screen printing

How to clean the screen after screen printing

watch this video and learn

How to clean the screen after screen printing

Thursday, July 1, 2010

Printing equipment

Printing equipment
Whirlwind insists on world class technology and equipment. Why? Because we are passi­onate about being the best at what we do and of the benefits it delivers to our customers in consistent quality, first rate colour or reliable delivery.
But not only do we demand our print technology to be the latest, but as we move towards becoming the most sustainable printers in Australia, we also need print equipment that helps us achieve this goal.
Our technology and equipment is also upgradeable which means we keep up-to-date with any new developments that will improve our printing process, product offering and quality.
So what have we got in Print technology that makes us stand out from the rest:

Pre­ Press Technology

Kodak InSite software lets us communicate and collaborate with our clients online – from job creation to print. From any web-enabled computer, our clients, pre press operators and Account Managers can proof print jobs online, make changes, and approve artwork.


Metrix is an automatic layout calculator used by our manufacturing team to calculate complex layouts for print. Developed specifically for the print industry, it considers factors such as product bleed, grain direction, press imaginable area as well as post press requirements.
Metrix also imports data from our management information system and then exports data to pre press and finishing.


Our Kodak Prinergy pre press workflow system is designed to perform all the functions on the data that are necessary to get a PDF "ready" for the press. Prinergy works seamlessly with InSite and Metrix, which means we have an optimised, centrally managed workflow which allows for faster turnaround in your print jobs.
Lotem 800 CTP
We output print data to a Kodak Lotem 800 II platesetter with a five cassette automated plateloader. The Lotem 800 II uses Squarespot thermal imaging technology for the sharpest resolution and reliability – from original file to the press.
A fully automated system – plates are loaded from a cassette, punched, mounted on the drum for imaging and unloaded directly into an inline processor.

Printing Presses

Komori Presses
Offering the best inking systems in the world – Komori Presses are renowned for their performance and reliability.
Using Komori patented technology, these machines increase flexibility, produce accurate colours and result in higher quality print jobs. They also produce jobs at speed: our Komori 40 inch 10 colour perfector is the fastest two-sided printing machine in the world. Up to 13,000 double-sided sheets can be passed through this machine per hour and drying time is significantly reduced – in some cases stocks just take 30 minutes to dry.
Our presses are quality controlled, as they have patented inking systems that includes a hickey removal system and new ink design that produces quality colours everytime.
Our presses have the capacity to print a wide range of stocks ranging from 60gsm to 500gsm.
Not only do our printing presses allow us greater flexibility and quality in print, they are also easier on the environment. Komori presses have reduced paper waste, are low in energy consumption, use less chemicals, there is a reduction in solid waste and less noise.
One of our 5 colour Komori press can also apply an aqueous varnish - a more environmentally friendly coating which is more easily recycled than laminated products.


hirlwind Print offers a range of finishing services designed to bring your print job to life. From sealing varnishes on all coated stocks, scoring wheels on folding machines, single or double sided laminate to spot UV, we can cater for most finishing requirements.
Our extensive onsite suite of finishing equipment delivers first class quality and speed oven an extensive range of print finishing options. These machines include:

  • Five guillotines (Polar 137)
  • Laminator (Voyager 3)
  • Folders (Horizon Folder AFC544AKT, Stahl Folder 52, Stahl Folder 78, Stahl KD 78 Folder and DCM Euro Folder)
  • Stitcher (Muller Martini Stitcher)

  • Cylinder/platen (Cylinder 54x72, Cylinder 54x77, Heidelberg Platen)

Print your designs on anything you can hang, wear, or tote

Silk-screening is a great way to personalize 
your gear. It's a very basic process that has unlimited outcomes. One of the easiest ways to get a design on almost any surface is to use the photo emulsion process. Once you've made the screen, it's ready to print time and time again. Follow along as I walk my colleague Sara Huston through the process of transferring our design to 
a screen, and printing it on a laptop bag.
Work up an idea for your design. On your first attempt, try a one-color design, keep it simple, and have some fun with it. Once you get it figured out, make your design digital. Sara and I created ours in Illustrator, but you can also scan a drawing. If you are really hands-on, you can draw straight onto transparency paper using India ink. You need a solid black positive to burn into the screen. I print on transparencies, using a black and white laser printer. This gives me an easy way to accurately, cheaply, and quickly create a positive.


» diazo photo emulsion made by
» 8"x10" silk screen

» 8"x10" piece of glass

» squeegee

» task lights (2)

» 150-watt bulbs (2)

» transparency paper for black and white copier/laser printer

» silk-screen inks (createx and speedball have worked well for me)

» lid to ikea bin for stretching shirt over, or other hard flat surface you can slip into a shirt


» fan (i use a small vornado)

» diazo photo emulsion remover (if you want to clean your screen and start over)



Step 1: Prep the ScreenMix the photo emulsion as per the directions.
Coat the screen with photo emulsion, working fairly quickly over a sink or surface you can get messy. 
It's OK to have indoor lights on during this process, but keep out of direct sunlight. The emulsion needs to be applied evenly, so keep flipping the screen over and squeegeeing until the emulsion is even on both sides. Any globs will cause uneven exposing and will mess up your end result. The thicker the emulsion is applied, the longer the screen will have 
to be exposed.
The screen needs to be completely dry in order to expose it, and should be dried in a pitch-black room. I dry my screen by resting the wood frame on a couple of shoe boxes in the closet, so that the screen is parallel to and above the floor. This allows the air to flow above and below the screen to help it dry faster. Make sure that only the frame touches the boxes, so as not to mess up the nicely applied emulsion. You can place a fan (I use Vornado because they are compact) next to the screen. Drying it this way takes 30 minutes to an hour, depending on humidity.

Step 2: Expose the Screen

Now that it is dry, place the screen on your workspace with the bottom facing down. Put your transparency on the screen in the center and as squarely as you can, then place a piece of glass on top. This holds your transparency down so that it makes direct and even contact with the screen. If it doesn't make direct contact, then your design will appear fuzzy around the edges.
The light source needs to be placed about 12 inches from the screen to get good results, and it needs to shine evenly across your design. I use two $10 task lights. These are great because they allow me to easily adjust my light source, and by having two, one on either side of the screen, we can make sure the entire design gets an even, direct supply of light. Follow the directions that came with the emulsion for exposing your screen. It varies with the bulb and screen size. I'll burn our screen for about 30 minutes. You can tell when the screen is done by looking: the exposed areas turn dark green when they are baked solid by the light.
Tip: For a super-dense positive, make two transparencies with your design on them. Line them up and attach them together with double-sided tape.

Step 3: Wash and Dry Screen

Now that the screen is exposed, wash it off in the sink with hot water. It takes some force to wash the screen effectively. I've attached a special nozzle to my faucet that creates higher pressure. (I got a nozzle at Bed Bath & Beyond for $5. Just screw it on and it'll toggle between high and low. Works great for dishes too; I leave it on all the time.)
Along with spraying, you can gently rub the screen with your fingers. Don't use your fingernails. If you force the emulsion off, you run the risk of tearing 
off the hardened emulsion, putting you back to 
step 1. You want only the unexposed area to wash off. Under hot water, the emulsion will become slightly gummy. Drying the screen isn't such a big deal this time around, now that it isn't sensitive to light. Prop it up against the fan, or place it where it can get some air. Silk dries quickly.

Step 4: Print It

Now that the screen is exposed, washed, and dried, print it and see how it works. Try it out on paper first.
Lay the screen down flat, making sure that your surface is even and flat.
With a spoon, put a glob of paint on the screen and spread it the width of your design. Don't get any on the design itself, just the area above it.
Now the fun part. Hold the screen down firmly 
with one hand (or have a buddy help hold it). Use a squeegee to pull the ink down to the bottom of the screen. Apply a small amount of pressure to the squeegee as you pull the ink. You will be able to see 
the paint evenly distributed across the screen.
Lift the screen and look at your beautiful print! Be very careful when you lift off the screen. Try to peel it slowly and directly up, so you don't smudge the fresh ink. It may want to stick to the paper.
It's as easy as that! Lay the screen down on another piece of paper and do a few more prints for fun.
Volume 01: CRAFT is the first project-based magazine dedicated to the renaissance happening within the world of crafts. Our premiere issue features 23 projects with a twist! Embroider your skateboard, light up your clothing, felt an iPod cocoon, knit your own boots, stitch a robot, and more!

How to Silkscreen Posters and Shirts ?

Silkscreening is such a great happy medium — nestled comfortably half-way between hand-drawn and mass production, more colourful than photocopying and with an aesthetic all its own. Artist Shannon Gerard broke out her silkscreening gear to make cool shirts and posters for her upcoming comic launch, and despite being crazy busy has shared her skills in this funny and detailed tutorial. Read on to learn how to print your own posters, shirts, or whatever you fancy printing on, and how the Virgin Mary and Spiderman join forces to help her out.
Home Screenprinting Tutorialby Shannon Gerard
1. Choosing and Preparing Your Screen
What you need:
~ A screen with the right mesh count for your printing surface~ Mr. Clean or any water based degreasing agent
The first thing you need when setting up a home print shop is the screen (I know, weird). Screens with aluminium frames last much longer than wooden frames which warp after repeated washings. Aluminium screens are usually only 10 dollars more than wooden screens of the same size, so even if you plan to use your screen more than one time, the extra money is definitely worthwhile. A sturdy aluminium screen will continue to lie flat on the printing surface after multiple uses and the mesh is pulled much tighter around an aluminium frame which produces a crisper printed image. They’re also a lot easier to wash out than wooden screens.
The other major factor to consider is mesh count. The mesh count refers the tightness of the weave in the mesh fabric of the screen. A higher mesh count means the fibres of the mesh are closer together and a lower count means the fibres are more loosely woven, so more ink can pass through the screen. If you are printing on paper, you want a screen with a mesh count of about 230 for really optimal results. A screen that tight will allow you to print images with finer details and thinner lines. Since fabric is generally more absorbent than paper, you need a screen that lets through more ink when printing on t-shirts, totebags, or anything cloth. For fabric printing, you should use a screen with a mesh count of 110 or 160 (those tend to be the standard counts sold). I use 110. A lot of folks also opt for a mesh count of about 180, which allows printing on both paper and fabric, but there is an obvious loss of fine detail if you print onto paper at that count.
If you live in Toronto, the best place to buy screens and related materials (it’s the cheapest too), is G&S Dye and Accessories at Dundas and University. Dixon, who runs G&S, knows everything about fabric printing (I almost believe he could bring about world peace) and is also very helpful about supplies and advice. His website has very detailed information about printing including some in-depth tutorials and awesome diagrams of home set-ups.
Once you have bought your screen, the first important thing to do is wash it out with cold water and a degreasing agent (I use the unfortunately gender-specific Mr. Clean, the concentration a little bit weaker than what you would put on thefloor). Getting any grease out helps the emulsion to bond with the fabric which gives you a crisper stencil.
Also important is to understand the orientation of your screen (not the gender specific kind). The flat “back” of the screen which sits on the printing surface is called the “print side” or “paper side” and the “front” of the screen, recessed inside the lip of the frame, is called the “squeegee side.”

2. Preparing Your Artwork
What you need:
~ Original artwork with a high contrast~ Transparency film
Screen printing is a very “flat” medium, so images that are starkly contrasted work best. When preparing your artwork to be burned to the screen (to create the stencil), work in black and white only — grey tones and the subtleties of photographic images will not produce a workable stencil. If you start with a photo, as in the example below, reduce the information to a line drawing, or apply a filter or halftone screen in Photoshop which will reduce the image to a series of dots.

I used the photo on the left as a source to produce the drawing on the right, but I liked the red colour of the boxing gloves and wanted to include that in the final print. You can print in any colour you want, but the artwork used to make the stencil must be black. I coloured in the glove shapes, making sure they remained registered correctly to the drawing:

Every colour you want to print requires a separate stencil.
Once you have the artwork prepared, print or photocopy it onto transparent film, and you will be ready to produce the screen stencil. It is very important that the black areas printed on the transparency are completely opaque, so hold it up to the light and make sure all the black lines are totally dense.
3. Burning the Stencil
What you need:
~ The screen~ Emulsion and sensitiser~ A scoop coater or squeegee~ Rubber gloves~ A rubber spatula~ A darkroom and photosafe light~ Black bristol board, or black cloth or felt~ Transparencies containing your artwork~ A sheet of glass~ A light fixture with a 250 watt photo flood bulb~ A timer~ A spray bottle full of cold water~ A shower head, spray nozzle or garden hose
This is the most intensive step in the screenprinting process, but if you take a little extra care when making the stencil, the printing process will go super fast.
The first thing to do, after your screen is degreased and completely dry, is to coat the screen in emulsion. Emulsion is the photosensitive goop that will make the stencil on the screen. In areas where the emulsion hardens, the screen is blocked so no ink can pass through. In areas where the emulsion is kept soft and eventually washed out of the screen, the ink will pass through to produce your print. Emulsion is hardened by exposure to light, so you need to conduct this entire process in a darkroom using photosafe lights to see by. I use the extremely ghetto mechanism of a Blessed Virgin Mary (BVM) night light with a red christmas tree bulb inside (witness the shame below) and coat my screens in our windowless bathroom (it gets worse).

Emulsion comes in two parts, the emulsion proper and a small bottle of sensitiser. Working by the red light of your own BVM, mix the emulsion with the sensitiser (each brand comes with its own set of instructions on the label). Once sensitised, emulsion is good for about 3 weeks at room temperature, or about 3 months (tops — it gets iffy at the end of those 3 months) if refrigerated. Always wear gloves! when handling emulsion. Those photo-chemicals are nasty!
To coat the screen, you can invest in a scoop coater (about 14 bucks) or can use the slightly grosser and less controllable option of a squeegee or wallpaper smoother. A scoop coater is a very easy-to-use trough which holds the emulsion and deposits a nice even, thin coat on the screen. If you’re using the squeegee or smoother option, use a spatula to spread a line of emulsion along one end of the screen (See below) and then, pressing very firmly with the squeegee, drag the line of emulsion down or up the screen until it is evenly coated with emulsion. It is very important to have a thin, even coat of emulsion on the screen, uninterrupted by drips or blobby areas that could mess up the clarity of your stencil. I always double coat my screen by applying one coat to the paper side and another to the squeegee side. You must double coat all in one go while the first coat is still freshly wet.

Leave the coated screen in the dark to dry for at least 2 hours. Some tutorials say one hour, but I always have bad results with that timeline because the emulsion is not ready. The important thing is that the emulsion is completely dry before you expose your image. No stickiness allowed.
Once the coated screen is dry, you can expose it. It is easy to set up a home exposure unit by arranging materials in this order (from bottom to top)– 1. black cloth or board on the bottom to absorb the light and prevent it from bouncing back through your image area; 2. screen next with paper side down (against the black board); 3. transparencies against the squeegee side of the screen, oriented so that you can read them normally from left to right; 4. a sheet of heavy glass on top of the transparencies to hold them down as tightly as possible to the screen surface; 5. a lamp situated about 1 or 1.5 feet above the glass top with a 250 watt photo flood bulb installed (any good photo store has these for about 8 bucks a bulb).

Don’t forget to set up this exposure unit inside the darkroom! Also, make sure there are no obvious dust particles or other matter in between the transparency and the screen or the glass and the transparency. Any material that blocks the light from getting to the emulsion will show up in your stencil and will interrupt your print.
The other big thing to keep in mind here is that the outer two inches of the screen area (closest to the frame on all sides) are unprintable. Because the tension is so high where the fabric is stretched around the frame, you can’t get a good print out of the border areas of the screen. Make sure your image does not go closer to the frame than 2 inches all around.
Once you have the unit set up in the dark, turn on the flood light for about 15 minutes and allow the emulsion to harden in areas that receive the light.
At the end of 15 minutes, you can turn off the flood light and work in the regular light of the room (no more darkroom necessary). Remove the glass and transparency (you will probably be able to see a ghost image of your design at this point, but if you don’t — it’s okay) and immediately, thoroughly spray the entire surface of the screen with cold water. You have to do this right away and wash the screen out before the emulsion gets hard where your design is. Use a spray nozzle in your shower (how convenient that my exposure unit is in the bathroom) or sink, or use the garden hose to spray down the the screen. Gently pass the spray across the whole surface of the screen until your design is completely washed out. Hold it up to the light to make sure no cloudy areas remain inside your stencil. If any pinholes show where you don’t want them, paint them in with left over emulsion and leave them to dry in the sunlight. Now your stencil is done! Let the screen completely dry before printing.

4. Printing the Image
What you need:
~ One set of two hinge clamps
~ A large flat surface~ A big sheet of acetate (at least 2 feet square)~ The finished stencil on the screen~ Packing tape~ A rubber spatula~ Appropriate ink for your printing surface~ The right squeegee for your printing surface~ Whatever you plan to print on (t-shirts or paper)~ A hot iron
To set up for printing, you need a completely flat table or counter top with two hinge clamps installed at the far side and a large piece of acetate or velum (at least 2 feet long — much larger than the paper or fabric you are printing onto). Tape the acetate down firmly at one end so that it will not budge. You need it to be perfectly fixed at one end in order to properly register your print.

Fasten the screen into the hinge clamps with the squeegee side facing up and make sure you can move the screen into an upright position in the clamps without it falling back down to the printing surface.

Use packing tape to block off any open areas of the screen that you don’t want to print.

Prop the screen up slightly with your roll of tape and apply a line of ink onto the surface of the screen about 2 inches above the image to be printed. Flood the image with ink using your squeegee. Make sure you have the right kind of squeegee for the material (paper or fabric) on which you are printing. If printing on fabric, make sure you use fabric ink, otherwise your image will wash off in the laundry.

Make sure the acetate is between the printing table and the screen. Lower the screen to the table surface and print the first copy of the image onto the acetate. Immediately flood the image with ink to keep it from drying out. Raise the screen to an upright position in the hinges.

Use the acetate to register your image in the right spot on your shirt or paper by orienting your shirt or paper underneath the acetate.

Remove the acetate (just move it out of the way, don’t detach it from the table!) and lower the screen onto your shirt or paper. Print the image by holding the squeegee at about 45 degrees and applying even, strong pressure to pass the ink through the screen.

Ta da!

Remember that this ink dries to plastic. Any area, however small, where it dries in the screen will become unusable in the future. In between each print, flood your image. When you’re done printing, wash the screen of all ink right away. Mr. Clean (or any non-gender specific water based cleaning agent) can be used to wash out ink (if necessary) without degrading the emulsion.
Screen ink dries very quickly, so if you are printing in many layers on paper, you can print the second layer on top of the first within about 20 minutes (I wait longer just to make sure no colours bleed together, but you can do it in 20 no problem). If you are printing on fabric, let the image dry for at least an hour (I wait 2) and then iron over top of the image on the hottest setting for at least 1 full minute. Ironing the ink makes it colour fast in the wash.
Easy huh?
Here’s what the printed shirt looks like, and here’s what the same image looks like, in two layers, on paper:

Problems and possible solutions to the print SILKSCREEN

Problems and possible solutions to the print SILKSCREEN
Screen Stencils

Problem: Drawing Fluid, Screen Filler or Photo Emulsion won't adhere to screen.

Screen fabric dirty. Screen may have been used with solvent based materials or the sizing may not have completely washed out of the screen fabric.Scrub with a soft bristle brush and a dish washer powder/ water solution. Rinse well.

Problem: Photo Emulsion will not wash out to create a stencil.

Artwork not prepared with a visually or photographically opaque material.Heat as well as light will "set" the photoemulsion. There must not be any heat build-up (above 105 Degrees F) on the stencil during exposure.More than 12 hours (at 70 degrees F.) elapsed before the sensitized screen was exposed (Speedball Bichromate System).The sensitized screen was exposed to too much light or heat before exposure to art work.Overexposure. The instructions lists exposure time and heights for a "disposable foil pie tin" reflector. More efficient reflectors will require a higher bulb height and/or less exposure time.Artwork did not make proper contact with screen. Incomplete washout.

Problem: Too much or all Photo Emulsion washed out of screen after exposure.

Improper mixing of emulsion and sensitizer.Underexposure.Tracing paper or film not sufficiently transparent. Washout temperature was too high.Screen not dry before coating.Screen not dry before exposure.
Problem: Some small details on Photo Emulsion screen did not wash out completely.Possibilities:See relevant "Possibilities" under "Photoemulsion will not wash out to create a stencil."Failure to use a black, non-reflective background under the screen during exposure.Using a more intense light source, such as the BBA No. 1 photoflood, will reduce the required exposure time and resultant light bounce-back. This will improve detail wash-out.
Problem: Inks drying in screen.Possibilities:Use the flood stroke technique given in the instructions. Keep squeegees sharpened.For the Acrylic Screen Inks and Textile Inks, mix with the Retarder Base.Use a couple of humidifiers or "sick-room" vaporizers in the printing area.
Problems: Textile ink prints not opaque enough.

Use a coarser scree!n fabric. Make multiple passes.Use a rounded squeegee.Use a soft base under the fabric to be printed.Use a hair dryer to flash dry the print immediately after printing and then reprint overtop in exact register.

How to PrintSILK Screen ?PART 4

This is the final part on how to print SILKSCREEN


Step A-Preparations

Attach your screen frame to the base by inserting the hinge pins. For off-contact printing tape a penny or a nickel to each of the four corners on the underside of the screen. Place a sheet of your printing paper under the screen and position it as it is to be printed. Allow for margins. When you are certain that the paper is in the correct position, lift the screen gently and mark where each edge of the paper should be placed.
Cut three pieces of cardboard about 1 " x 2" and use these for registration guides. Place these next to the lines you drew on the base so you can correctly locate each sheet to be printed.
These guides should be fastened securely with tape or rubber cement. Good guides are particularly important if you intend to print more than one color of any print.

Step B-Selecting inks for printing on paper


Art prints require porous-surface papers of high quality. For most other printing applications, construction paper, drawing paper, charcoal paper, pastel paper, most board items (except railroad board) and cover stock (especially good for greeting cards) will be fine. Ink remains water soluble after drying.
Avoid slick coated, high gloss papers or vinyl or plastic coated papers.
Stir the ink completely until you achieve a "buttery" or "creamy" consistency. If too thick, add one or two drops of water or Water Soluble Transparent Extender Base. Mix thoroughly. Colors may be intermixed.
PERMANENT ACRYLIC INKSFine art prints require smooth matte finish, medium or heavyweight papers. To overcome "buckling" caused by water penetration, after each color run is dry, place a flat weight on stacked prints. This will cause them to dry flat and is especially important for good color registration.
These water-based acrylic inks dry waterproof.
To achieve transparency or economy, SPEEDBALL Extender Base (preferred) or Transparent Base may be added. Do not allow ink to dry in screen.
For most other printing applications like posters, greeting cards, book covers, etc. 20# weight and over cover stock paper is recommended.
Avoid slick coated, high gloss papers or vinyl or plastic coated papers.
Stir the ink completely until you achieve a "buttery" or "creamy" consistency. If too heavy or thick, add one or two drops of water, SPEEDBALL Acrylic Extender Base or SPEEDBALL Acrylic Transparent Base. Mix thoroughly

Step B-Alternative

Selecting inks for printing on non-paper surfaces.

WATER SOLUBLE INKS - These can be used on wood or masonite if first coated with an acrylic emulsion base coat such as SPEEDBALL Gesso. To achieve waterresistance, use an acrylic aerosol spray or a solventbased varnish as a topcoat.
TEXTILE INKS -These can be used on almost any fabric that can be subjected to a hot iron (275'-375'). Do not use on nonporous fabrics such as nylon.
ACRYLIC INKS -These inks can also be used on wood, masonite and many coated surfaces. Always pre-test before using.

Step C-Printing on paper

Spoon out the ink across the end of the screen nearest to you. With the screen lifted slightly from the base, apply an even blanket of ink onto the print area. Be sure to use an easy, smooth stroke with the squeegee at a slight angle away from you. This is the flood stroke. Drop the screen onto your paper Lift the squeegee over the ridge of ink and make the print stroke by pulling towards yourself. Keep the squeegee at a 45 degree angle with enough pressure to scrape the ink from the screen. Lift the screen from the print, make the flood stroke, set the kick leg, remove the print and put it to dry on your rack or line. Insert new paper, release the kick leg and repeat the process.
Sharp clear prints can be produced provided you (1) maintain a generous quantity of ink on the screen, (2) use the flood stroke and (3) maintain adequate and even pressure on the squeegee during the print stroke....................................

The finished print of how SILKSCREEN We hope to be bestowed upon satisfaction

How to PrintSILK Screen ?PART 3

We will be talking in this article on how to print SILKSCREEN


These instructions explain 4 of the more popular methods used for preparing screens. Read them carefully. Follow them carefully.


This is the best method for a beginner It is the fastest, least expensive, and simplest way to prepare a screen. It is done by cutting the message or illustration from paper. Newspaper or newsprint will work satisfactorily. Keep the paper flat and not wrinkled. For more accurate and durable cut paper stencils, use waxed paper. Designs can be cut with scissors or stencil knife or they can be "torn" to create a textured appearance.

Step A

Cut your paper stencil. You may wish to create a design by folding and cutting your paper as illustrated. For your stencil, you can use either the cutout or the paper remaining.

Step B

Position printing paper under the frame.
Lay your cutouts on this paper as desired and lower the screen.
Screen Printing Fabric Kit #4526 has materials for methods 1, 2, 3 & 4.. Craft Kit #4521 & Deluxe Kit #4522 have materials for methods 1, 2, & 3.

Step C

Follow the directions found in the section "Making Prints."
Press down on the screen frame to insure complete contact with all cutouts. Make your first print. You will find with the first pass of the squeegee, the ink will cause the cutouts to stick to the underside of the screen creating a stencil effect.
Once you see how simple this method is, you may wish to try variations by creating two or three designs with torn paper of various shapes and printing each in a different color or hue. Do not overlap cutout pieces on the screen.
For intricate cutouts and small pieces, you may use school paste or rubber cement to adhere them to the bottom of the screen. NOTE: Generally ten to fifteen prints can be satisfactorily produced by this method. When a larger number of prints is desired, you should use one of the more "permanent" methods.


Direct block-out or "Negative Method"

Using Screen Filler is another simple means of preparing a screen for printing. The Screen Filler is used to block out those areas which you do not wish to print. This allows the ink to be forced through the screen whenever the Screen Filler has not been applied

Step A

On a sheet of plain paper, make up the illustrations or message you wish to print with your screen. Place this layout on a table top. Place your screen over this layout and trace your design directly on the screen fabric with a soft lead pencil.

Step B

Stir the Screen Filler until it is thoroughly mixed to a smooth consistency. Select an appropriate brush. This will be determined according to the type of line or texture to be produced. You can work on either the front or back of the screen. Be certain that bottom of screen is elevated-not touching table. Paint areas of the layout that you do not want to print. When all areas to be blocked out are covered with Screen Filler, flip the screen over and smooth out places the Filler may have collected on the opposite sideof the screen. Be careful during this smoothing out not to distort your work.

Step C

Leave the screen to dry in a level position. Make sure nothing touches the areas covered with Screen Filler Thorough drying is necessary. Overnight drying is recommended to assure best results.Check for pin holes in the blocked-out areas. You can do this by holding the screen up to a light. Fill any pin holes with Screen Filler and allow to dry completely. You are now ready to print. NOTE: Since Screen Filler is applied to all areas which are not to be printed, this-along with all traditional "direct" methods-is considered to be a "negative" method of printing. Your print will be the opposite of that which you created in your screen.


Tusche-resist or " positive!' method

Step A

On a sheet of plain paper, make up the illustrations or message you wish to print with your screen. Place this layout on a table top. Place your screen over this layout, top side up. Trace your design directly on the screen fabric with a soft lead pencil.

Step A-Alternative

The preparation of a layout is to help guide the application of Drawing Fluid. If you feel such a guide is unnecessary, go directly to step B.

Step B

Select an appropriate brush. This will be determined by the type of line or texture to be produced. You can work on either side of the screen. Remember, however, that your printing will be done from the top (or "ink-fill") side of the screen.
Be certain that screen is elevated-not touching table. Paint the Drawing Fluid over those areas of your layout that you want to print. Leave the screen to dry in a level, flat position. Make sure nothing touches the areas covered with Drawing Fluid.

Step C

After the Drawing Fluid is completely dry, open the Screen Filler and mix it thoroughly to a smooth consistency. Spoon it onto the screen fabric on the same side of the screen used for the application of Drawing Fluid.
Use the squeegee or the plastic spreader to apply an evenly smooth coating over the entire screen. One pass should be sufficient. Multiple passes of Screen Filler will dissolve the Drawing Fluid and prevent character washout.
Again, put the screen to dry in a horizontal position making sure nothing touches the fabric. It is important that the
Screen Filler dry completely.

Step D

When the Screen Filler has thoroughly dried, spray cold water on both sides of the screen. Concentrate the spray on the areas where Drawing Fluid was applied. These areas will dissolve and the screen will become open at those points so that ink can flow through them.
If some areas remain slightly blocked, scrub them lightly with a small stiff brush on both sides of the screen (an old toothbrush will do a good job). DO NOT USE HOT WATER DURING THIS STAGE. Allow your screen to dry in a level (horizontal) position, bottom-side up.
Drying time may be accelerated by using a hair dryer or fan.

You are now ready to print. Follow the directions found in the section, "Making Prints."


Use polyester or other suitable synthetic fabric or screen material. Do not use silk or organdy if you wish to reclaim the screen.
This is one of the most exciting methods of Screen Printing because it offers the widest range of possibilities. It makes possible the printing of fine line drawings, various hand and commercial lettering techniques, as well as photographic half-tone positives.
All methods of photographic Screen Printing require three things: (1) a screen prepared with a light-sensitive coating, (2) a film positive, or equal, and (3) a light source that will enable you to transfer the opaque images on your positive to the light-sensitive screen you have prepared.Let's examine these requirements.

Step A--Mixing the photo emulsion


SB4558 Diazo Kit Follow the mixing instructions given on both containers. Store the sensitized emulsion in a cool and dark place. Shelf life for the sensitized emulsion is 4 weeks at 90 Degrees F 8 weeks at 70 Degrees F and 4 months when refrigerated.

Step B Coating the screen

Coat the screen by first pouring a bead of the solution on one end of the bottom side of the screen. Spread it evenly and thinly with the squeegee or the plastic spreader. Use more solution where necessary. Pour a bead of the solution on one end of the inside of the screen and spread it evenly with the squeegee or the plastic spreader. Work to achieve an even continuous coating on both sides of the screen fabric. Perform the final spreading on the inside of the screen. Return any excess solution to your mixing container.

Step C-Drying the coated screen

In an area AWAY FROM LIGHT AND HEAT, set the screen to dry horizontally, bottom side down. This will provide the most even, flat "film" on the underside of the screen. It will, however, require your elevating the four corners of the underside of the frame during the drying stage with push pins or other suitable devices. An empty drawer, cupboard, closet, or under a cardboard box will work fine. Allow the screen to dry thoroughly. If more than 300 prints are to be run, it is best to apply a second coating of the sensitized Photo Emulsion to the bottom of the screen after the first coat is dry. Remember, work for a smooth, even THIN coating. Repeat the drying process away from heat and light.
Once the sensitized screen is dry, it must remain in a darkened area until it is ready to be exposed. A fan in the dark area will greatly speed up the drying of the emulsion on the screen.

Step D--Preparing a positive

With the SPEEDBALL Bichromate System, the maximum allowable time between application of the sensitized emulsion to the screen and the exposure is 6 hours at room temperature. With the SPEEDBALL Diazo System, the maximum allowable time is eight weeks at room temperature.
A "positive" is any opaque image (usually black), on any transparent or translucent surface. There are many ways you may choose to prepare them.
A excellent transparent film for this purpose is Wet Media Acetate . Wet Media is available in various sizes.
SPEEDBALL Screen Printing Craft Kits include both plain and printed tracing paper. The printed sheets (positives) have copy and illustrations that may be used to create a picture or message. With the plain sheets, you may make art work of your own with Speedball Super Black Ink and an artists' brush or SPEEDBALL pens. Excellent results can also be obtained by using dry transfer or pressure sensitive letters and symbols . These can be applied directly on the tracing paper or clear plastic. The graphics must be opaque to light.
Another way of producing positives is through copy machines that have the capability of reproducing very opaquely on film, tracing paper, etc. In order to satisfactorily produce a positive using a copy machine, the following conditions must be met:
. (1) Black and white line work-Must be opaque.

(2) Photographic print-Must have high contrast.

(3) Copy machine must have capability stated above. You must check this out in advance. Photographic images can also be accurately screen printed.However, because of the half-tones (or continuous tones) which are in all photographs, a special type of "positive" must be prepared. This must be done by someone with photographic expertise and who has the necessary equipment.
Essentially, this person will photographically transfer the halftones to Kodalith Ortho film. A dot patterned half-tone screen will be placed between the lens, and the ortho film. These "half-tone" dots will be exposed to the film simultaneously with the photograph.
The resulting "half-tone" negative will then be converted by the photographer to a "half-tone" positive.
This is the same type of "conversion" that is made in the preparation of photographs for newspaper and magazine printing. The dot pattern breaks up the continuous tones into a half-tone interpretation that can be printed.
Fine art half-tone screen printing involves a posterization process whereby a series of selected positives are produced through a process camera. With filters, the process camera can selectively identify specific colors in the original art. These are then, sequentially prepared for color registry. This is a highly technical procedure and should be attempted only by experienced printers.
For an in-depth treatment of photographic screen procedures, we highly recommend the book, "Screen Printing-Contemporary Methods and Materials" by Frances and Norman Lassiter This book 00 is available at most artists' materials stores.

Step E

Before you remove the sensitized screen from the dark drying area, make sure everything you need to print with is on hand. Set up your exposure lamp as described in step F Copy and illustrations (positives) can be fixed in place with cellophane tape. Do not let two layers of tracing paper overlap. A better alternative than taping the "positives" to the screen fabric is to lay a piece of clear glass, lucite, or plexiglass on top of them. One of these must be used if thin lines or lettering less than 1/4" tall is to be printed. Which ever you use, once you are all "positives" are in place and against the fabric, you are ready to expose the screen.
A screen using positives made tracing paper and india ink could now look something like this:

Step F-Light source

To set up your "Light Station" place the screen on top of a piece of black paper and center it 12 inches directly below a 150W clear incandescent bulb or a BBA No.1 Photoflood (preferred) Bulb. Either should be fitted with a foil-type pie tin as a reflector.
The positive can be placed in contact with the coated (dry) screen by either of the above methods.
Figure F-1 does not require the foam rubber cushion and the positive will read "correctly" as it's positioned in the screen frame.
Figure F-2 employs the use of a foam rubber cushion which is cut to the inside dimensions of the screen frame. The positive is placed in reverse (mirror image) on top of the underside of the screen.

SPEEDBALL SCREEN PRINTING SYSTEMRecommended Exposure Chart (Revised 1/77)

150 Watt Bulb, Clear Incandescent

Screen Size . 150W Bulb Height . . Exposure Time
8"x10" . . . . . . 12 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 minutes

10"x14" . . . . . 12 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 minutes

12"x18" . . . . . 15 inches . . . . . . . . . 1 hr. 14 minutes1

6"x20 . . . . . . 17 inches . . . . . . . . . 1 hr. 32 minutes

18"x20" . . . . . 17 inches . . . . . . . . . 1 hr. 32 minutes
BBA No. 1 Photoflood (250 Watt)

Screen Size . . Lamp Height . . Exposure Time
8" x 10". . . . . . 12 inches . . . . . 10 minutes

10"x14". . . . . . 12 inches . . . . . 10 minutes

12 "x 18" . . . . .15 inches . . . . . 16 minutes

16"x2O" . . . . . 17 inches . . . . . 20 minutes

18"x2O" . . . . . 17 inches . . . . . 20 minutes


This chart has been prepared using an aluminum foil pie-plate reflector as indicated in our instructions.
More sophisticated light sources, reflectors and equipment can, of course, be used. However, as any variable is changed, you will have to adjust the exposure times and distances. This will require experimentation through the use of test strips or other light testing devices or procedures.
Turn on the light and note the time. Expose according to time and distance indicated in chart. After exposure, remove positive and take screen to sink.

Step G

Apply a forceful spray of water (body temperature) to both sides of the screen. DO NOT USE HOT WATER. Concentrate this spray on the light images on the top side of the screen. After a few minutes, these areas will become "open." Continue spraying until all unwanted emulsion is gone. Once you have completely washed the screen, let it dry thoroughly in a level flat position.Hold the dry frame to the light and check for pin-holes. These can be covered with Speedball Screen Filler or pieces of masking I stuck to the bottom of the screen. If Screen Filler is used, let the screen dry again. Follow the directions found in the section, "Making Prints." NOTE: Photo Emulsion should not be left in the screen indefinitely unless a permanent stencil is wanted.It should be washed out as soon as the run is completed. See Clean-up instructions on page 6..............

How to PrintSILK Screen ?PART 2

In this PART will learn how to print the SILK screen by


A card table will provide enough work area for most projects. It is necessary to locate your work area with easy access to a large sink or laundry tub with hot and cold water.
If you plan to make a large number of prints, you may wish to string a line through spring-type clothespins or make a rack to keep prints from smearing while they dry.


Step A

Two hinges with screws and removable pins are included in Speedball kits (#4521 & 4522 only). These are easily attached by first joining the halves together with the hinge pins. It is best to mount the side of the hinge with two bearings to the base and the side of the hinge with one bearing to the screen frame. Then, position the assembled hinges over the 11 pilot" holes on top of the frame and base and screw them in place. Be sure they are right side up. Follow this by screwing the kickleg to the side of the frame. A "pilot" hole has been provided for this also.
The kickleg should be "freeswinging".

Step B

The next important step in preparation is to detach the frame from the base and scrub both sides of the screen fabric with a bristle or nylon brush and trisodium phosphate/water or dish washer powder/water solution.
Let it dry thoroughly after rinsing. For water-based inks, use 1 wide
water-resistant masking tape. Lay the tape so it is divided equally-half on the screen fabric-half on the screen frame. Turn the frame over and cover the groove with tape. Be certain that the tape extends beyond the frame and onto the fabric. For solvent-based inks, use gummed water-soluble tape in the same manner.
Taping in this way helps to maintain a "tight" screen, and prevents ink from leaking under the screen frame during printing and will keep the edges of your prints clean. To get maximum adhesion of the tape, rub it with a spoon or wooden stirrer.

Step C

There are a number of ways to prepare a screen to print the picture or message you want. While the methods are different, the basic principle is to make a stencil on the screen fabric which allows ink to be forced through its "open" areas to produce a design......

Wait for the next part

How to PrintSILK Screen ?PART 1


Screen printing, sometimes called silk screening or serigraphy, has long proved it's worth as a fine arts and commercial medium. While SPEEDBALL Screen Printing Materials meet the high quality standards of professionals, our hope is to bring the satisfaction and enjoyment of Screen Printing to the hobbyist, the handicrafter and the student as well.
The Speedball systems allow total flexibility. You can create screen stencils in a variety of ways and produce prints with three SPEEDBALL water-based, solvent-free inks; watersoluble, permanent acrylic and textile inks.
These instructions have been prepared in simple language. If followed, they will produce satisfying results. Most importantly, we have made additional and replacement materials available at low prices from all stores where SPEEDBALL art products are sold.
In addition to the materials supplied in the SPEEDBALL Kits, you may want to have the following items on hand:

  • Water resistant masking tape, 1 "wide

  • Screw driver

  • Old newspapers

  • Sheet of cardboard

  • Small scrub brush

  • House detergent (See pg.6)

  • Scissors

  • Small lamp or lamp cord with a standard socket

  • BBA No.1 Photoflood (preferred) or a clear 150W incandescent bulb

  • Aluminum foil disposable pie tin with 10" or 12" diameter

  • Cellophane tape

  • Paper cups

  • SPEEDBALL Technical Black Ink & SPEEDBALL Pens

  • Old towels, rags, paper towels

  • 9"x12" piece of glass, plexiglas, or lucite

  • Rubber gloves

  • Apron or smock

An added luxury is an electric fan. This can be used to cut down the required drying time in the preparation of screens for printing as well as the drying of prints.